Concentrations Of Solutions Practice Problems Answers

So we added a base and the pH went up a little bit, but a very, very small amount. One way to solve the problem is through the use of ratios. Solution: Solution: 1. doc Example: Preparation of a Standard Solution 58. The French word title means rank. The first solution cannot be physically realistic as it would mean that hydrogen would end up with a negative concentration. 91 g of NaCl in 100 mL of water, or 9. The formulas explained here are only to be used for the purpose of diluting a solution from a higher percentage to a lower percentage. The molarity of a solution is measured in moles of solute per liter of solution, or mol/liter. A = TRUE B = FALSE C = NOT ENOUGH INFORMATION PROBLEM ONE: The initial molar concentration of the cytoplasm inside a. Peterson’s MCAT SUCCESS 2005 1. Just as before, we will focus on the change in the concentrations of the various substances between the initial and final states. Dilutions Worksheet 1) If I add 25 mL of water to 125 mL of a 0. A solution is made by dissolving 58. 0 mL of H 2 SO 4 to neutralize 0. SOLUTION CONCENTRATION PRACTICE WORKSHEET 1. org are unblocked. You may be given a solution (the 'stock' solution) and asked to prepare from it a range of solutions of different concentrations. pdf Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook pages 347–348 11. Up until this point, we have been able to solve for the final % strength by. What is the equilibrium concentrations of HI? Problem #5 The equilibrium constant for the reaction represented below is 50 at 448 o C. 65 M solution that is added. Proportionality Example The proportionality approach to these kinds of problems focuses on the idea that the absorbance of a solution is directly proportional to its concentration. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are widely used tests to detect and quantify biological molecules. Answers to Problem set #10 1. 4 g CaI2 in 750 mL of water. Do NOT type units into the answer boxes, type only the numeric values. 45 grams ofNaCI in 1000. I recently glued up a plywood workbench using a Titebond PVA and left the glue to dry in the bottom of the tray as this seems to me the best way to remove the glue in a single piece once you have drained off the excess back into the jug. 16 L of solution. The formulas explained here are only to be used for the purpose of diluting a solution from a higher percentage to a lower percentage. Preparing Hydroponics Nutrient Solutions, From Concentrations to Weights In a previous post, I explained how concentrations are given in hydroponic gardening and what they actually mean. The initial rate are found from the first two data points in each experiment: Using the initial concentrations with the initial rates: So this is a second order reaction. Percent Solutions. This is the concentration of CO 2 at 5. Select the best answer to the choices. Practice Problem Answers. CH 3 COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq)-> CH 3 COONa (aq) + H 2 O (l) By adding the sodium hydroxide, which is a basic solution, to the acetic acid, which is an acidic solution, a neutralization reaction. Only problem with that is that there isn't an answer key so I don't know if I'm correct! I think I understand how to do all these but if someone could put their answers that'd be great so I can compare. 5 liters to milliliters 2. Whether using a differential rate law or integrated rate law, always make Conceptual Problems Conceptual Answers. After the « Problems » section, the complete, detailed solution for every question is found. Balances give readings in grams. Peterson’s MCAT SUCCESS 2005 1. Concentration of ownership is where the problem largely lies. ' and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes. HCl is a strong acid, so assume it is 100% ion-ized. Assume blood-glucose levels in a population of adult women are normally distributed with mean 90 mg/dL and standard deviation 38 mg/dL. Chemistry 11 Solutions 978 r0 r07 r105107 r1 Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Properties • MHR | 52 Section 8. Calculate the molar concentration of the final solution. The composition by percentage of each of the ‘big 3’ elements present in the fertilizer must be stated on the. Extra Practice with Solution Concentrations (for Quiz 9) 1. Solution Concentration Problems 1) A solution is prepared by dissolving 26. The bracket [ ] indicates concentration. Do NOT use commas or scientific notation when entering large numbers. The question asks for molarity: moles solute litre solution 2. Acid and Base pH Calculations - Supplemental Worksheet KEY For each of the following solutions: Write a chemical equation, identify the limiting reactant (if there is one), and calculate the pH. Glucose is a sugar that is found abundantly in nature. 80 kilograms to pounds B. So the latter number must be the desired solution. 30 mole of iodine, what are the equilibrium concentrations of the three gases? The equilibrium constant KC = 45. A)the solvent is a gas and the solute is a solid. A diprotic acid solution H2A has a molarity of. Biology - Osmosis Practice Problems 1. Part ApH3 Express your answer using one significant figure separated by a comma. Only problem with that is that there isn't an answer key so I don't know if I'm correct! I think I understand how to do all these but if someone could put their answers that'd be great so I can compare. 0 grams of water? 15. Click here to see a solution to Practice Problem 5. 15 M NaOH solution, what will the molarity of the diluted solution be? 2) If I add water to 100 mL of a 0. Molarity also requires volume; the question tells us we have 5. solution? Answers: 1. Solving Dilution Problems in Solution Chemistry CLEAR & SIMPLE - YouTubeThis video shows how to solve two dilution problems, using the standard dilution formula, M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2. 456 M (note that concentrations expressed in mmole/mL and mol/L have always the same numerical value, so to convert between them it is enough to change units). Simulation 20, Problem-Solving 16. 0 mL of solution. Prepare a solution from a powdered medication according to directions on the vial or other resources 2. Concentration = amount of solute perquantity of solventMass/volume % = Mass of solute (g) x 100%Volume of solution (mL)CONCENTRATION AS A MASS/VOLUME PERCENTUsually for solids dissolved in liquids. So I have an exam and was given a study guide with practice problems. Chapter 16-Assignment C: Solution Dilution and. Also, the pressure of CO2 is given, and therefore, first we solve for. Monosaccharides such as glucose 2. The question asks for molarity: moles solute litre solution 2. AE Solubility Curve Answers. Biology - Osmosis Practice Problems 1. The correct answer is false, false. What volume (mL) of a 0. pdf Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook pages 347-348 11. Thus you will add (1. Boiling Point/Freezing Point Depression Worksheet Answer Key Solution Concentrations. lutions: 2L of 2. Monosaccharides such as glucose 2. ANOVA Practice Problems 1. This stock solution will have a high concentration. Molarity is calculated by determining the number of liters of a solution, determining the number of moles of solute in a solution, and then dividing the number moles of solute by the liters of solution. IXL Learning Learning. 90 g NaCl in exactly 100 mL of solution. Select the best answer to the choices. PERCENT BY MASS (m/m) Percent by mass (m/m) is the mass of solute divided by the total mass of the solution, multiplied by 100 %. Which of the following hydrogen ion concentrations represents a solution with acidic properties? ? 1 x 10-2 M ? 1 x 10-8 M ?. 90 M concentration of conjugate base [A-] = 1. The dilution fomula is: Concentration (stock) × Volume (stock) = Concentration (dilute) × Volume (dilute) Dilution Calculator of Mass Percentage. Solutions Quiz with MCQs. 500 milligrams to grams 5. The rate of disappearance of bromine was measure for several different concentrations of acetone, bromine and hydrogen ions; Rate Law Questions and Answers. A stock solution of 1. Flammable and combustible liquids can also cause health problems depending on the specific material and route of exposure (breathing the vapour/mist, eye or skin contact, or swallowing). Solutions and detailed explanations are also included. 89 M Tris-borate, 0. In each diagram a “cell” with a permeable membrane has been placed in a beaker containing substances dissolved in water. What is a concentrated solution? The differences between diluted and concentrated solutions Examples of concentrations take practice quizzes and tests. Solutions, Dilutions, Concentrations and Molarity. Plugging in the numbers, we get α = (-30. If you work in an industrial or R&D lab you may concentrate on the real problems, instead of losing time for the preparatory tasks. How much of a 10% (w/w) solution do we need to get 25 g of solute? The problem asks us to convert amount (g) solute to amount (g. a) Pb(OH) 2 (s) ⇔ Pb2+ (aq) + 2 OH-(aq)[Pb2+]= 10-6 M, pH= 7 ∆Go = 85. Practice Problem: The concentration of CO 2 in a solution is 0. Also, the pressure of CO2 is given, and therefore, first we solve for. what are the first and second ionization constants for this acid?. a time-release form of the drug D. Small and hydrophobic c. 8 g K 2 SO 4 b. 15 M NaOH solution until the final volume is 150 mL, what will the molarity of the diluted solution be? 3) How much 0. After equilibrium is reached, the concentration of SO 3 is 0. What is the molarity of a solution in which 0. When all the solid is. Flasks X, Y, and Z contain solutions with different concentrations of the solute NaCl. A solution is made with NaI and NaCl such that it is 0. 10 mg of protein per mL. 00 M aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide. Calculating New Concentrations After Mixing Two Solutions? A 40. The maximum stress shown is 10142 psi compared to the 6000 psi value found using simple Mc/I calculations. 000 atm - 0. 6) Common ion solution, commonly known as a buffer solution Remember that if more than one acid or an acid and a base are present in the same solution. SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIUM PRACTICE PROBLEMS What are the magnesium and hydroxide ion concentrations in mol/L mL of this solution was evaporated, 0. 450 moles of NaCl are dissolved in 95. What is the concentration of a solution, in parts per million, if 0. Once you have identified the solute and solvent in a solution, you are ready to determine its concentration. What is the molarity of the solution?. 0 L solution in part (a) (i. A buffered solution is made by adding 75. 3, you learned that the integrated rate law for each common type of reaction (zeroth, first These plots show the decomposition of a sample of NO2 at 330°C as (a) the. What is the Ksp of copper (II) periodate? Cu(IO4)2(s) ==> Cu(IO4)2 (aq) ==> Cu. 020 V (b) 1. 00 M solution can be made using 75. The samples begin as mainly containing water, in vivo. Hydrolysis Leveling Relationships 3. For the buffer solution just starting out it was 9. 2 mol dm ; 0. That way, x is the answer you want, the final volume of the solution, rather than x being the amount of 5. What are the molar concentrations of Pb2+(aq) and I−(aq) in the solution? Justify your answer. 47 L 3) What is the concentration of an aqueous solution with a volume of 450 mL that contains 200 grams of iron (II. Ratio Problems with Answers for Grade 9. An Aid in Solving Equilibrium Problems. 1) Formation of solutions where the process is endothermic can be spontaneous provided that _____. The following data are consistent with summary information on price p. The solutions in the arms of the U-tube (at right) are separated by a selectively permeable membrane that is permeable to water and solute A, but not to solute B. Practice Problem Set #4: Myoglobin and Hemoglobin NOTE: Multiple choice problems may have more than one correct answer! (1) Which of the following statements are FALSE? a. What is the dilution factor, i. What is the concentration of the solution in g/L? answer: 350 g/L 7. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. 450 moles of NaCl are dissolved in 95. Chapter 7 Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page 336 Write the equilibrium expression for each homogeneous reaction. 3 COUNTS TOWARDS CADE Calculate the pH of a weak acid solution ([HA]. 80M, is mixed with 21. Chem 321 Lecture 11 - Chemical Activities 10/3/13 Student Learning Objectives One of the assumptions that has been made in equilibrium calculations thus far has been to equate K to a ratio of concentrations. At steady state, the exit stream is found to contain 20 mol% A. Chapter_12-Properties_of_Solutions_practice_problems[1] What students are saying As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students. Electrolysis of the molten salt with a current of 0. What is the Ksp of copper (II) periodate? Cu(IO4)2(s) ==> Cu(IO4)2 (aq) ==> Cu. The initial rate are found from the first two data points in each experiment: Using the initial concentrations with the initial rates: So this is a second order reaction. The calculated answer, 4. 02 gram of NaCl is dissolved in 1000. 5th centiles were 12. 15 M NaOH solution until the final volume is 150 mL, what will the molarity of the diluted solution be? 3) How much 0. But narrow control, whether by government or corporations, is inherently bad. Over those years, we've used several different textbooks, and some of them use different approximate pKa values for buffers and amino acids. the iodine passes through the bag (because it is selectively permeable) and when it gets to the starch solution, it turns it from white to dark purple, because iodine is an indicator of starch. This is a question that concerns the concentration of a diluted solution. What is the molality of the solution? 3) Concentrated sulfuric acid has a density of 1. 1 Section Resources Connecting to Your World Section 16. 25 M HNO 3 to 135. E4405, 2014, 154 pages Clinical Pharmacy Practice; Pharmacy Students; Career/Professional Development. This is an online calculator to find the volume required to dilute the solution and reach the desired concentration and volume using the C1V1 = C2V2 dilution equation. g of water. Make sure to show work, report answers to the correct number of significant figures and use the proper units. Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all species if 4. Biology - Osmosis Practice Problems 1. For example, the acid may be acetic acid and the salt may be sodium acetate. Before we can solve problems that involve concentrations, we must review certain concepts about percents. Calculate the molarity of the NaCl solution. Propagation of Errors in Dilution Problems When a calculation is done in lab, it is important to round the result to the number of significant figures indicated by the precision of the measurements used in the calculation. Practice dilution problems for the Bio 201 practical 1. 5 M solution? 69. in the problem. Describe in words and pictures (graphs or molecular drawings) what it means if you have a: Concentrated solution of a weak acid (or base) or Concentrated solution of a strong acid (or base) or other combinations. 00 L of a 3. Welcome to CCRNPracticeTests. Chem 125 - Experiment II Solution Color. These practice questions are optional and answers will not be graded, although they will be discussed during discussion sections. saturated solution solubility molarity molality Henry’s law Osmosis Osmotic pressure Osmolarity Osmolality Diffusion SEE LECTURE NOTES FOR DEFINITION ANSWERS 1. HCl is a strong acid, so assume it is 100% ion-ized. 015 M NaF 0. 2 Concentrations of Solutions 481 Practice Problems Practice Problems SAMPLE PROBLEM 16. PERCENT BY MASS (m/m) Percent by mass (m/m) is the mass of solute divided by the total mass of the solution, multiplied by 100 %. 989 atm (b) The pressure of I at equilibrium is 2x = 0. 35 M acetic acid (pKa = 4. 1 Properties of Solutions 471 16. 0 mL of solution?. 6 grams of iron (II) chloride solute?. You can transfer some of this solution into a second beaker, in multiples of 10ml, and add water in multiples of 10ml to dilute the solution. 02 M EDTA, what is the Molar concentration of Tris-borate in 100 ml of 1x TBE? How many ml of 0. 364 g of Na 2 CO 3. While you may already make solutions in the lab by following recipes, we hope this Webinar will help you understand the concepts involved so that you can. 0000 mole of sucrose (C12H22011) in I. Calculate the molar concentration of the final solution. 00 g/mL, 1 liter of solution = 1 kg and hence, 1 mg/L = 1 ppm. Chapter Six Concentrations and Dilutions 29 Now this problem has given us the final concentration, and we are being asked to determine the amount of active ingredient needed. How would you make 80mL of a 1:20 dilution of a 1M NaCl solution? d. Likewise when teaching word problems, try Polya’s technique, then reread. 0 mL of H 2 SO 4 to neutralize 0. Practice Problem Answers. Now suppose that you dilute that solution with water—the whole thing—to some larger, predetermined volume (V2). Medication Calculation Practice Problems 1. These units turn out to be convenient when the solute concentrations are very samll (almost trace amounts). Thus, 300 mL of the 0. You are asked to use the stock solution to prepare new solutions (to have a final volume of 50 cm3) of each of the following concentrations: 0. Plugging in the numbers, we get α = (-30. 21 mL of sodium hydroxide to neutralize 25. Analyze: We are asked to determine the concentrations of H + and OH- ions in a neutral solution at 25 ºC. Calculate [OH ] and [H 3O] for this solution. Find the number of moles of solute in e. 8 g K 2 SO 4 b. 7) Calculate the value of Q and ∆G for the following reactions, given initial concentrations and ∆Go at 298. Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/l, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. The remainder, 500 mL - 67 mL = 433 mL, comes from pure solvent (water, in this case). Improve your science knowledge with free questions in "Compare concentrations of solutions" and thousands of other science skills. 001 moles/liter, and for a solution with a pH of 8, the concentration of hydronium ions will be 10-8 = 0. 2-ml (Put in paragraph form) 2. /pH for x volume). This is the aptitude questions and answers section on "Percentage" with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. com has a library of 550,000 questions and answers for covering your toughest textbook problems Students love Study. 25 M, [HA-]=. It asks students to find molarity and molality when given mass of solute, mass of solvent, or volume of solutions. 2 g of potassium chloride, KCl (used as a salt substitute), dissolved in 450 mL of solution (b) 31. Chemistry (12th Edition) answers to Chapter 16 - Solutions - 16. These problems are provided to aid in your understanding of basic neurobiological concepts and to guide your focus for in-depth study. "I" stands for the initial concentrations (or pressures) for each species in the reaction mixture. 0 atm of pressure. Flammable and combustible liquids can also cause health problems depending on the specific material and route of exposure (breathing the vapour/mist, eye or skin contact, or swallowing). The next step in learning about compounding math is learning about using Alligations , which are used when mixing a preparation of a certain percentage when you have two different strengths to work with. ! 1! Honors Chemistry Name _____ Concentrations of Solutions Date _____ Complete the following problems on a separate sheet of paper. The following data are consistent with summary information on price p. You know the concentrations of each, and you know (or can calculate) the volumes of each that are mixed to yield the final solution. First identify what species are present, and any reactions that could occur. 375 mL of 0. Describe how you would prepare 1 L of a 1 M solution of sodium chloride. These constant concentrations are simply incorporated into the equilibrium constant. In practice, smaller pH changes are measured and the buffer capacity is quantitatively expressed as the ratio of acid or base added to the change in pH produced (e. Equations from Word Problems, and Units [05/19/2003] In 2 1/4 hours the temperature dropped 13 1/9 degrees. 11, Solutions Name_____ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Using dilution factors to solve concentration problems - fully worked out example calculations for diluting solutions. 24 x 10-20 M Problem 2 What are the molar concentrations of ions in solution when solid PbI 2 is in contact with pure water?. Chemical Equilibrium Practice Problems 1. Assume addition of the nitric acid has no effect on volume. Practice multiple choice questions on solutions, quiz questions to learn types of solutions tutorial with MCQs. 8402 g of silver chloride was precipitated. 25 M HNO 3 to 135. In particular we will look at mixing problems (modeling the amount of a substance dissolved in a liquid and liquid both enters and exits), population problems (modeling a population under a variety of situations in which the population can enter or exit) and falling objects (modeling the velocity of a. The molar concentrations of Pb2+(aq) and I−(aq) would be the same as in the 1. 0 ml volumetric flask. Making a solution with two solutes. 6 grams of iron (II) chloride solute?. IXL Learning Learning. Making Solutions of Differing Mass/Volume Concentrations at the end of this handout. Questions and Answers on Current Good Manufacturing Practices—Control of Components and Drug Product Containers and Closures finds a problem with a mixing step and the outcome is a change in. Electrolysis of the molten salt with a current of 0. CCRN Practice Test. (Cu(IO4)2 = 445. 64M solution of acetic acid at 25°C. 5 M solution? 2) How many liters of 4. If 50 g of NaOH is dissolved into 150 ml of ethanol, name the solute & the solvent. It asks students to find molarity and molality when given mass of solute, mass of solvent, or volume of solutions. The standard solution is usually added from a graduated vessel called a burette. Practice Problems: 1. Percent Solutions. ANOVA Practice Problems 1. Part B: Concentration and Dilution Lab. 84 g/mL and is 95. g of water. This Chemistry Worksheet-Solution Concentration Worksheet is suitable for 10th - 12th Grade. Check your answers by substituting these values into the equilibrium constant expression to obtain K. Solutions to Review Problems for Acid/Base Chemistry 4. In this section we will look at how to calculate the effect of diluting solutions. Anhydrides Hydrolysis 4. 0235 M HCl solution? 3) What is the pH of a 6. Problem #33: Calculate the pH of the solution that results from the addition of 0. Knowing how to convert from one concentration to another is an crucial skill that every pharmacy student must possess. Let us look at some practice problems on "Venn diagram problems and solutions" Problem 1 : In a survey of university students, 64 had taken mathematics course, 94 had taken chemistry course, 58 had taken physics course, 28 had taken mathematics and physics, 26 had taken mathematics and chemistry , 22 had taken chemistry and physics course, and. Thus, it is important for pharmacy technicians to have a fundamental understanding of everyday math problems that are commonly encountered in pharmacy practice. I recently glued up a plywood workbench using a Titebond PVA and left the glue to dry in the bottom of the tray as this seems to me the best way to remove the glue in a single piece once you have drained off the excess back into the jug. (Answer: It is a solution because the salt dissolves, or disappears, in the liquid. 10 milligrams to micrograms 4. what is the concentration of a solution with 10g of salt dissolved in 40g of solution find final concentration chemistry finding final concentration of a solution when adding water examples of solutions having final concentrations example problem on expressing concentration in percent by mass mass/mass percent concentration of a solution examples. This chemistry video tutorial explains how to solve common dilution problems using a simple formula using concentration or molarity with volume. C02 ANALYSES The concentrations of C02 in whole and alveolar breath samples from up to 7 individuals were found to average 3. Click here to see a solution to Practice Problem 7. What is the mole fraction of the sodium hydroxide? 2) A solution is prepared by dissolving 36. 0 mL of water? 4. Answer all non-integer questions to at least 3 significant figures. Future chemists practice laboratory techniques by creating a monochloramine solution. (HOAc: K a = 1. Remember that the water concentrations are determined by the solute concentrations (Figure 1). Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand. 0 grams of lithium bromide? 3) What is the concentration if I have 450 mL of iron (II) chloride solution that contains 9. ! 1! Honors Chemistry Name _____ Concentrations of Solutions Date _____ Complete the following problems on a separate sheet of paper. Determine the calculations for the solutions in the Practice Problems section for Part B. Increasing concentrations of either 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) or protons (H +) cause a (rightward OR leftward. 2, Assessment 16. 146 g/L of the dissolved salt. Practice Problem: The concentration of CO 2 in a solution is 0. In going from 25. How much of the stock solution should be taken per dose? RATIOS + PROPORTIONS Concentrations • Weight / weight (w/w) •Represented as GRAMS PER 100 GRAMS •Used for solids, semisolids. That will be dealt with in the section on Calculations for Colorimetry. Sample Problem 1 A HCl solution has a concentration of 0. 2 CONCENTRATIONS OF SOLUTIONS (pages 480-486) This section explains how to solve problems involving molarity of a solution, how to prepare dilute solutions from more concentrated solutions, and what is meant by percent by volume and percent by mass. The gram formula weight of sodium chloride is 58. the solution in g/L? answer: 3 g/L 6. As the reaction proceeds, the concentrations of CO. For the buffer solution just starting out it was 9. AP Chemistry Problem Set Chapter 15 Name_____ Multiple Choice. Let us look at some practice problems on "Venn diagram problems and solutions" Problem 1 : In a survey of university students, 64 had taken mathematics course, 94 had taken chemistry course, 58 had taken physics course, 28 had taken mathematics and physics, 26 had taken mathematics and chemistry , 22 had taken chemistry and physics course, and. 8 g of solid sodium hydroxide in 600. 80 M Fe(NO 3 ) 3 is mixed with 21. What is the pH of the following solutions? a) 0. Chemistry/Biology 302 - Biochemistry: Exam 1 Practice Problems PLEASE NOTE: these questions come from several years of past Biochem tests. Solutions usually are stored in a higher concentration, for convience of use and avoiding contamination. 92 mL, is a little larger than the mass, 4. 1 mol dm -3; 0. Knowing how to convert from one concentration to another is an crucial skill that every pharmacy student must possess. AE What is a Solution? Answers. If I add water to 100 mL of a 0. 51 25 Total soda ash as Na 2CO 3 27 mg/L as Na 2CO 3 c. 020 M (c) 0. 50L+of+solution. Solution: Solution: 1. Select the best answer to the choices. Some will require the use of the quadratic formula. To perform three dilutions with your prepared solution. Solution: A The initial concentrations of the reactants are [H 2] i = [CO 2] i = 0. This number is then multiplied by 10 6 and expressed as parts per million (ppm).